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George A. O'Toole, PhD

Professor of Microbiology and Immunology

Microbiology and Immunology

University of Wisconsin - Madison, Ph.D., 1994
Cornell University, B.S., 1988

After postdoctoral work at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and Harvard Medical School, Dr. O'Toole joined the faculty of the Department of Microbiology at Dartmouth Medical School in 1999

Immunology Program
Molecular and Cellular Biology Graduate Programs
Molecular Pathogenesis Program


Contact Information:

Dartmouth Medical School
Vail Building - HB 7550
Hanover NH 03755

Phone: 603-650-1248
Fax: 603-650-1318
Email: George.A.Otoole@Dartmouth.Edu

Professional Interests:

The main focus of the O’Toole laboratory is the study of complex surface-attached bacterial communities known as biofilms. Biofilms can form on a wide variety of surfaces including catheter lines, surgical implants, contact lenses, the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis, industrial and drinking water pipelines, and on the surfaces of plant roots. In most natural, clinical, and industrial settings bacteria live predominantly in biofilms and not as planktonic (free-swimming) cells such as those typically studied in the laboratory. Bacteria growing in biofilm communities are of great interest to the medical community, because these bacteria become highly resistant to antibiotics by an as yet unknown mechanism. Although much has been learned about the types of microbes that can form biofilms, the morphology of these communities, and their chemical/physical properties, until recently little was known about the molecular genetic basis of biofilm formation or antibiotic resistance.

Studies in the O’Toole lab focus on:
• The molecular genetic basis of biofilm formation.
• The role of the intracellular signaling molecule c-di-GMP in controlling biofilm formation by pseudomonads.
• The signal transduction pathways regulating biofilm formation.
• The mechanisms by which biofilms form on biotic, or living surfaces, and why these biofilms are so highly resistant to antibiotics. We have developed a novel model system for studying biofilms on airway epithelial cells, and these studies are done, in particular, in the context of cystic fibrosis.
• The role of lysogenic phages in impacting biofilm formation.

Recent collaborative studies with Dr. Bruce Stanton’s group here at Dartmouth have explored questions of host-pathogen interactions, using the interplay between the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa and airway epithelial cells as a model system. We are particularly interested in the role of the toxin, Cif, in altering epithelial cell biology and protein trafficking. We are also studying mechanisms by which P. aeruginosa delivers toxins to host cells.

Please visit the O'Toole Lab Home Page.

Selected Publications:


An Anti-Persister Strategy for the Treatment of Chronic <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i> Infections.
Koeva M, Gutu AD, Hebert W, Wager JD, Yonker LM, O'Toole GA, Ausubel FM, Moskowitz SM, Joseph-McCarthy D
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2017 Sep 18; pii: AAC.00987-17. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00987-17. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
PMID: 28923873

High-Speed "4D" Computational Microscopy of Bacterial Surface Motility.
de Anda J, Lee EY, Lee CK, Bennett RR, Ji X, Soltani S, Harrison MC, Baker AE, Luo Y, Chou T, O'Toole GA, Armani AM, Golestanian R, Wong GCL
ACS Nano. 2017 Sep 26;11(9):9340-9351. doi: 10.1021/acsnano.7b04738. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
PMID: 28836761

<i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i> Alters Staphylococcus <i>aureus</i> Sensitivity to Vancomycin in a Biofilm Model of Cystic Fibrosis Infection.
Orazi G, O'Toole GA
MBio. 2017 Jul 18;8(4) pii: e00873-17. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00873-17. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
PMID: 28720732

Special Meeting Sections for the 6th ASM Conference on Beneficial Microbes.
O'Toole GA
J Bacteriol. 2017 Aug 1;199(15) pii: e00317-17. doi: 10.1128/JB.00317-17. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
PMID: 28698224

A Symphony of Cyclases: Specificity in Diguanylate Cyclase Signaling.
Dahlstrom KM, O'Toole GA
Annu Rev Microbiol. 2017 Sep 8;71:179-195. doi: 10.1146/annurev-micro-090816-093325. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
PMID: 28645224

Classic Spotlights: Selected Highlights from the First 100 Years of the <i>Journal of Bacteriology</i>.
Armitage JP, Becker A, Christie PJ, de Boer PAJ, DiRita VJ, Gourse RL, Henkin TM, Margolin W, Metcalf WW, Mullineaux CW, O'Toole GA, Parkinson JS, Schneewind O, Silhavy TJ, Stock AM, Zhulin IB
J Bacteriol. 2017 Jul 1;199(13) pii: e00062-17. doi: 10.1128/JB.00062-17. Epub 2017 Jun 13.
PMID: 28611240

Pseudomonas aeruginosa-Derived Rhamnolipids and Other Detergents Modulate Colony Morphotype and Motility in the Burkholderia cepacia Complex.
Bernier SP, Hum C, Li X, O'Toole GA, Magarvey NA, Surette MG
J Bacteriol. 2017 Jul 1;199(13) pii: e00171-17. doi: 10.1128/JB.00171-17. Epub 2017 Jun 13.
PMID: 28439038

<i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i> Alginate Overproduction Promotes Coexistence with <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> in a Model of Cystic Fibrosis Respiratory Infection.
Limoli DH, Whitfield GB, Kitao T, Ivey ML, Davis MR Jr, Grahl N, Hogan DA, Rahme LG, Howell PL, O'Toole GA, Goldberg JB
MBio. 2017 Mar 21;8(2) pii: e00186-17. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00186-17. Epub 2017 Mar 21.
PMID: 28325763

Bacteria, Rev Your Engines: Stator Dynamics Regulate Flagellar Motility.
Baker AE, O'Toole GA
J Bacteriol. 2017 Jun 15;199(12) pii: e00088-17. doi: 10.1128/JB.00088-17. Epub 2017 May 25.
PMID: 28320878

Role of Cyclic Di-GMP and Exopolysaccharide in Type IV Pilus Dynamics.
Ribbe J, Baker AE, Euler S, O'Toole GA, Maier B
J Bacteriol. 2017 Apr 15;199(8) pii: e00859-16. doi: 10.1128/JB.00859-16. Epub 2017 Mar 28.
PMID: 28167523