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Richard I. Enelow, MD

Professor of Medicine
Professor of Microbiology and Immunology

Additional Titles/Positions/Affiliations:
Vice-Chair for Research Affairs, Department of Medicine

Microbiology and Immunology

BA Amherst College, 1978
MD Boston University, 1983.
Post-doctoral fellowship, Viral Immunology, University of Virginia, 1992-97

Immunology Program
Program in Experimental and Molecular Medicine


Contact Information:

1 Medical Center Drive
Lebanon NH 03756

Office: DHMC 5C
Phone: (603) 650-5533
Fax: (603) 650-0580

Assistant: Devin Sevine
Asst. Phone: (603) 650-8896
Asst. Email:

Professional Interests:

Immunopathogenesis of respiratory virus infection;
Influenza pathogenesis;
Inflammatory and immune-mediated lung disease

Grant Information:

R01AI069360 (PI: Enelow)
"TNF Processing in Pulmonary Immunopathology"

U19 AI83024 (PI: Enelow)
"Innate Regulation of CD8+ T Cell Effector Activities"

Courses Taught:

Advanced Topics in Immunology
PEMM Immunology Module


My area of research broadly concerns the mechanisms that underlie the immune-mediated damage to the lungs which occurs in the context of respiratory virus infection. My clinical interests include immune-mediated lung disease, particularly the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, and I have spent my entire career exploring the potential relationship between antiviral T cell responses to respiratory infection to chronic inflammatory lung disease. I became interested in host responses to pulmonary infection as a research fellow in Infectious Disease at the University of Virginia, while pursuing clinical training in Pulmonary Disease. I then spent the next 5 years as a post-doctoral fellow in the laboratory of Dr. Thomas J. Braciale, M.D., Ph.D., (Microbiology/Pathology), Director of the newly-established Beirne B. Carter Center for Immunology Research at the University of Virginia, in order to receive rigorous training in viral immunopathogenesis. Aside from outstanding training and mentoring in addressing questions in basic cellular and molecular immunology, I became fascile with the techniques necessary to work with and manipulate negative-strand RNA viruses, such as influenza and RSV, and these respiratory infections have been the focus of most of my work after moving to Yale, and then to Dartmouth. I have extensive experience in mouse and human basic immunology, and my laboratory is currently home to 2 junior faculty members, 3 postdoctoral fellows, 1 graduate student, and 2 research assistants, so I have ample capacity to take on a variety of collaborative projects in addition to our primary areas of exploration. In addition I have 20 years of experience participating in multi-investigator clinical trials, in interstitial lung disease (particularly idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis), my clinical area of interest, and several publications which have come from these endeavors. For information on the Clinical Research Program in Interstitial Lung Disease see

Selected Publications:


Single-cell RNA-seq Analysis Reveals That Prenatal Arsenic Exposure Results in Long-term, Adverse Effects on Immune Gene Expression in Response to Influenza A Infection.
Hsu KS, Goodale BC, Ely KH, Hampton TH, Stanton BA, Enelow RI
Toxicol Sci. 2020 Aug 1;176(2):312-328. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfaa080.
PMID: 32514536

STAT2 Signaling Regulates Macrophage Phenotype During Influenza and Bacterial Super-Infection.
Gopal R, Lee B, McHugh KJ, Rich HE, Ramanan K, Mandalapu S, Clay ME, Seger PJ, Enelow RI, Manni ML, Robinson KM, Rangel-Moreno J, Alcorn JF
Front Immunol. 2018;9:2151. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.02151. Epub 2018 Sep 25.
PMID: 30337919

Volatile fingerprinting of human respiratory viruses from cell culture.
Purcaro G, Rees CA, Wieland-Alter WF, Schneider MJ, Wang X, Stefanuto PH, Wright PF, Enelow RI, Hill JE
J Breath Res. 2018 Mar 1;12(2):026015. doi: 10.1088/1752-7163/aa9eef. Epub 2018 Mar 1.
PMID: 29199638

Infant Infections and Respiratory Symptoms in Relation to in Utero Arsenic Exposure in a U.S. Cohort.
Farzan SF, Li Z, Korrick SA, Spiegelman D, Enelow R, Nadeau K, Baker E, Karagas MR
Environ Health Perspect. 2016 Jun;124(6):840-7. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1409282. Epub 2015 Sep 11.
PMID: 26359651

Shedding of TNF receptor 2 by effector CD8⁺ T cells by ADAM17 is important for regulating TNF-α availability during influenza infection.
DeBerge MP, Ely KH, Wright PF, Thorp EB, Enelow RI
J Leukoc Biol. 2015 Sep;98(3):423-34. doi: 10.1189/jlb.3A0914-432RR. Epub 2015 May 27.
PMID: 26019295

Influenza-induced type I interferon enhances susceptibility to gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial pneumonia in mice.
Lee B, Robinson KM, McHugh KJ, Scheller EV, Mandalapu S, Chen C, Di YP, Clay ME, Enelow RI, Dubin PJ, Alcorn JF
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2015 Jul 15;309(2):L158-67. doi: 10.1152/ajplung.00338.2014. Epub 2015 May 22.
PMID: 26001778

The role of IL-27 in susceptibility to post-influenza Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia.
Robinson KM, Lee B, Scheller EV, Mandalapu S, Enelow RI, Kolls JK, Alcorn JF
Respir Res. 2015 Feb 5;16:10. doi: 10.1186/s12931-015-0168-8. Epub 2015 Feb 5.
PMID: 25651926

Inflammatory impact of IFN-γ in CD8+ T cell-mediated lung injury is mediated by both Stat1-dependent and -independent pathways.
Ramana CV, DeBerge MP, Kumar A, Alia CS, Durbin JE, Enelow RI
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2015 Apr 1;308(7):L650-7. doi: 10.1152/ajplung.00360.2014. Epub 2015 Jan 23.
PMID: 25617378

Tissue-protective effects of NKG2A in immune-mediated clearance of virus infection.
Ely KH, Matsuoka M, DeBerge MP, Ruby JA, Liu J, Schneider MJ, Wang Y, Hahn YS, Enelow RI
PLoS One. 2014;9(9):e108385. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0108385. Epub 2014 Sep 24.
PMID: 25251060

In utero arsenic exposure and fetal immune repertoire in a US pregnancy cohort.
Nadeau KC, Li Z, Farzan S, Koestler D, Robbins D, Fei DL, Malipatlolla M, Maecker H, Enelow R, Korrick S, Karagas MR
Clin Immunol. 2014 Dec;155(2):188-97. doi: 10.1016/j.clim.2014.09.004. Epub 2014 Sep 16.
PMID: 25229165

View more publications on PubMed